Cholera is an acute, diarrheal sickness caused by Vibrio cholerae, a bacterial infection of the intestine. It is estimated that about 2.9 million cases and 95,000 deaths occur annually around the world. The disease is often mild or without symptoms, but few times be severe. Roughly one in 10 (10%) infected persons might have severe disease
An individual can get cholera by drinking water or eating any food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. The source of the contamination might usually the feces of an infected individual that further contaminates water and/or food, which further leads to an epidemic. The disease can then spread quickly in regions with inadequate treatment of drinking water and sewage. Common sources includes: foods and drinks sold by street vendors, vegetables grown with water containing human wastes, municipal water supplies, ice made from municipal water, and undercooked fish and seafood which have been caught from waters polluted with sewage. The illness is not likely to spread directly from one person to another; therefore, casual contact with any infected person is not a risk factor for becoming ill. People living in places with poor sanitation facilities, bad drinking water, crowding, war, famine, and inadequate hygiene are at a greater hazard for cholera.
Common locations which see lot of cholera cases include few parts of Africa, South Asia, and Latin America. If you are heading out and traveling to any of those areas, knowing the following cholera risk factors and symptoms can help protect you and your family.
It can take anywhere from a couple of hours to five days for symptoms to appear after infection. Symptoms typically appear in two to three days. Cholera illness is often mild or without symptoms, but can sometimes be severe. The disease is characterized by profuse and watery diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and leg cramps. In these individuals, rapid loss of body fluids leads to further dehydration and shock. Without treatment, it can turn fatal and death can occur within hours. Signs and symptoms of dehydration include increase in the heart rate, loss of skin elasticity (the ability to return to original position quickly if pinched), dry mucous membranes including the inside of the mouth, throat, nose, and eyelids; low blood pressure, increase in thirst, and muscle cramps.
To test for cholera, physicians must take a stool sample or a rectal swab and send it to a laboratory to look for the cholera bacteria.
Cholera Treatment in India, cholera can be simply and effectively treated by quick substitution of the fluid and salts lost due to profuse diarrhea. Individuals can be treated with oral rehydration solution (ORS), a pre-packaged blend of sugar and salts to be mixed in one liter of water and should be drunk in substantial large quantities. This solution is used globally to treat diarrhea. Severe cases also require intravenous fluid substitution. With prompt appropriate rehydration, fewer than one percent of cholera patients die. Antibiotics shorten the course and reduce the severity of the illness, but they are not as critical as receiving rehydration. Patients who develop severe diarrhea and vomiting, particularly in countries where cholera occurs a lot, should seek urgent medical attention.