Baldness is also called as alopecia or hair fall. Hair loss is usually caused or aggravated by stress, pregnancy, aging, thyroid disorder, lack of protein, anemia, and heredity. Progressively as hair tufts disappear, it shows a bald patch between hairs.
Types of hair fall
· Male pattern baldness
· Female pattern baldness
· Alopecia areata
· Telogen effluvium
· Anagen effluvium
1. Male pattern hair loss
Hair loss is caused due to thinning related to hormone (androgens) and genetically called has androgenetic alopecia. Male pattern hair loss pattern is characterized by hair loss on the front of the head and is marked by a receding hairline.
2. Female pattern hair loss
The early signs of diffuse hair loss and marked reduction in hair volume are visible at the age of 50 years and by the age of 80 years; full head hair loss is seen. It can cause psychological distress, particularly during menopause.
3. Alopecia areata
It is an autoimmune disorder, where hair falls out in small patches around the size of a quarter or more which can leads to complete loss hair of scalp called as Alopecia Totalis or in extreme cases entire body called as Alopecia Universalis.
4. Telogen effluvium (temporary hair loss)
Thinning or shedding is caused when a large amount of scalp hair is shifted in the resting phase (telogen phase) of hair growth cycle. Factors contributing are stress, anxiety, poor diet, post-pregnancy, menopause, illness, and smoking. Telogen effluvium is reversible and hair normally grows to a healthy state once the cause is identified and removed.
5. Anagen Effluvium
Anagen effluvium is caused due to abnormal or rapid loss of hair from drugs used in the cancer treatment or exposure to the chemical toxin. Growth is quick after eliminating exposure to the cause.
Diagnosis can be established by examination of the scalp to see the pattern of hair loss. A blood test may be carried out to determine the levels of female and male sex hormone levels and thyroid functions. A proper and detailed case history can also help identify the cause. Females with an increased level of androgens are more likely to suffer from symptoms like acne, excessive facial and body hair with irregular menses. These symptoms are characterized as a polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Baldness Treatment in India, permanent hair loss is being treated by hair replacement procedures, such as hair transplantation methods (such as micro-grafting, slit grafting, punch grafting), and by scalp reduction. Hair grafting/ hair transplant is an outpatient hair replacement procedure performed wherein the surgeon cuts the removed scalp into small segments with varying amounts of hair in each graft. After transplanting into the balding area, it produces a thick and "natural" look.
A scalp reduction is the removal of non-hair-bearing skin from the scalp (mainly back area) so that the remaining hair-bearing skin can be stretched to fill in the bald area of the head.
The type of hair loss, as well as the patient's circumstances and desires, determine which hair replacement procedures are most suitable.
Minoxidil solution used to treat baldness. Hormonal treatment helps to block effects of androgen (example- spironolactone, cyproterone, finasteride, and flutamide). Cosmetics camouflage colored hairspray to cover thinning areas of the scalp, hair wigs bulking fiber powder are few other ways to manage baldness.