Tuesday, 13 November 2018

Cholera Treatment in India – Best Hospital for Cholera

 
Cholera is an acute, diarrheal sickness caused by Vibrio cholerae, a bacterial infection of the intestine. It is estimated that about 2.9 million cases and 95,000 deaths occur annually around the world. The disease is often mild or without symptoms, but few times be severe. Roughly one in 10 (10%) infected persons might have severe disease

An individual can get cholera by drinking water or eating any food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. The source of the contamination might usually the feces of an infected individual that further contaminates water and/or food, which further leads to an epidemic. The disease can then spread quickly in regions with inadequate treatment of drinking water and sewage. Common sources includes: foods and drinks sold by street vendors, vegetables grown with water containing human wastes, municipal water supplies, ice made from municipal water, and undercooked fish and seafood which have been caught from waters polluted with sewage. The illness is not likely to spread directly from one person to another; therefore, casual contact with any infected person is not a risk factor for becoming ill. People living in places with poor sanitation facilities, bad drinking water, crowding, war, famine, and inadequate hygiene are at a greater hazard for cholera.

Common locations which see lot of cholera cases include few parts of Africa, South Asia, and Latin America. If you are heading out and traveling to any of those areas, knowing the following cholera risk factors and symptoms can help protect you and your family.

SYMPTOMS 
It can take anywhere from a couple of hours to five days for symptoms to appear after infection. Symptoms typically appear in two to three days. Cholera illness is often mild or without symptoms, but can sometimes be severe. The disease is characterized by profuse and watery diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and leg cramps. In these individuals, rapid loss of body fluids leads to further dehydration and shock. Without treatment, it can turn fatal and death can occur within hours. Signs and symptoms of dehydration include increase in the heart rate, loss of skin elasticity (the ability to return to original position quickly if pinched), dry mucous membranes including the inside of the mouth, throat, nose, and eyelids; low blood pressure, increase in thirst, and muscle cramps.

DIAGNOSIS 
To test for cholera, physicians must take a stool sample or a rectal swab and send it to a laboratory to look for the cholera bacteria.

TREATMENT 
Cholera Treatment in India, cholera can be simply and effectively treated by quick substitution of the fluid and salts lost due to profuse diarrhea. Individuals can be treated with oral rehydration solution (ORS), a pre-packaged blend of sugar and salts to be mixed in one liter of water and should be drunk in substantial large quantities. This solution is used globally to treat diarrhea. Severe cases also require intravenous fluid substitution. With prompt appropriate rehydration, fewer than one percent of cholera patients die. Antibiotics shorten the course and reduce the severity of the illness, but they are not as critical as receiving rehydration. Patients who develop severe diarrhea and vomiting, particularly in countries where cholera occurs a lot, should seek urgent medical attention.

Sunday, 4 November 2018

Bone Marrow Transplant in India– Best Hospitals for Bone Marrow Treatment


A bone marrow transplant is a procedure done to replace the damaged or destroyed bone marrow due to disease, infection, or chemotherapy. This procedure involves transplanting blood stem cells, so that they can travel to the bone marrow and produce new blood cells as well as assist in the growth of the new bone marrow.

Bone marrow contains immature blood-forming stem cells known as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). These cells are unspecialized and have the ability to multiply through cell division and either remain stem cells or differentiate and mature into other different kinds of blood cells. Thus, it helps the body to make enough white blood cells, platelets, or red blood cells to avoid infections, bleeding disorders, or anemia. Healthy stem cells can come from a healthy donor or from your own body. Stem cells can be harvested, or grown, prior to the start chemotherapy or radiation treatment. Cells of bone marrow can be frozen for prolonged periods without damage. In autologous HSC the cells must be harvested from the recipient many months in advance of the transplant procedure as opposed to allogeneic transplants wherein fresh HSC are preferred.


Bone Marrow Transplant in India, bone marrow transplants are performed when a person’s marrow is not able to function properly. This may be due to disease, chronic infections, or cancer treatments. Some reasons for a bone marrow transplant include aplastic anemia in which the marrow stops making new blood cells, cancers such as leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma, damaged bone marrow because of chemotherapy, congenital neutropenia that causes recurring infections, sickle cell anemia that causes misshapen red blood cells, thalassemia where the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin required for red blood cell.


The short-term complications include a drop in blood pressure, headache, nausea, pain, shortness of breath, chills, and fever.

Complications can be occasionally serious, and they can include: graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in which donor cells attack your own body, graft failure when transplanted cells don’t begin producing new cells as planned, bleeding in the lungs, brain, and other parts of the body; cataracts characterized by clouding in the lens of the eye, damage to vital organs, early menopause, anemia, which occurs when the body does not produce enough red blood cells, infections, nausea, diarrhea, or vomiting, mucositis; soreness in the mouth, throat, and stomach.

The chances of developing these complications depend on several factors, including your age, your overall health, the disease you’re being treated for, and the type of transplant you have received.

How a Bone Marrow Transplant Is Performed


The procedure of a bone marrow transplant is very much similar to a blood transfusion. If you are having an allogeneic transplant, bone marrow cells will be harvested from your donor a day or two prior to the procedure. If your own cells are being used (autologous transplant), they will be retrieved from the stem cell bank. For a bone marrow harvest, cells are collected through a needle from both hipbones. You will be under anesthesia for this procedure, meaning you will be asleep and free of any pain.

Monday, 29 October 2018

Types of Cancer Treatment – Best Hospitals for Cancer Treatment


Cancer can occur anywhere in the body and many times, the diagnosis is delayed and sometimes the cancer is detected in the last stag. It requires multidisciplinary team of medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, surgical oncologist, nurses, social workers, dietitians to come together to provide a holistic care to a patient suffering from cancer.

Symptoms

Any one or few symptoms may coexist in cancer patients from the list provided below, depending on the location of cancer and its spread- Fever, chills, recurrent infections or fever, loss of appetite, nausea, persistent fatigue, weakness, unexplained weight loss, night sweats, bone/joint pain and prone to easy fractures, shortness of breath, itchy skin or skin rash, swollen lymph nodes, easy bruising, bleeding gums, sweating of body during night, abdominal pain and back pain, headaches along with visual difficulties etc.

Treatment

Cancer Treatment In India, the factors that determine what type of treatment regimen the patient may receive depends on the type of blood cancer, disease's subtype, phase, category and/or stage, cytogenetic analysis results, overall health and symptoms, laboratory investigations like white blood cell count, cancer location, stage, rate of disease progression and spread; past history and family history of cancer and subsequent chemotherapy to treat it, how the quality of life will get impacted by the receipt of treatment

There are various treatment options for cancer and are listed below

Surgery  is the removal of the tumor and is performed as the tumor can improve symptoms and improve the prognosis of a person with cancer. The surgeon will try to remove as much of the tumor as possible, including any areas of spread and nearby enlarged lymph nodes

Chemotherapy  is the use of drugs to destroy tumor cells, usually by stopping the cells ability to grow and divide, usually given after surgery or with or after radiation therapy. Chemotherapy can be given via an intravenous (IV) tube placed into a vein using a needle or in a pill or capsule that is swallowed (orally). A chemotherapy schedule means the number of treatment cycles that need to be given over a defined period of time. In chemotherapy, either a single drug or combination of different drugs is given. The side effects of chemotherapy include fatigue, risk of infection, nausea, vomiting, hair loss, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and neutropenia. These side effects are transient and disappear once the treatment is finished.

Radiation therapy Radiation therapy is the use of high energy x-rays to destroy tumor cells. The schedule of radiation therapy regimen consists of a specific number of treatments given over a given set period of time. Side effects from radiation therapy may include fatigue, mild skin reactions, upset stomach, and diarrhea. These side effects are transient and disappear once the treatment is finished.

Targeted therapy In addition to standard chemotherapy, targeted therapy is a treatment that targets the tumor and blocks the growth of tumor cells while simultaneously limiting the damage to healthy cells

Palliative and symptomatic care includes supporting the patient with his or her physical, emotional, and social needs, improving quality of life, and supporting patients and their families. Palliative treatments include support related to medication, nutritional changes, relaxation techniques, emotional support, and other therapies.

Monday, 22 October 2018

Know About Bariatric Surgery in India – Best Hospitals for Bariatric Surgery


Bariatric surgery is a minimally invasive technique (laparoscopic surgery) that causes weight loss by limiting the amount of food the stomach can hold. Bariatric Surgery in India, the most common bariatric surgery procedures are gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, adjustable gastric band, and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. Immediately after bariatric surgery, the patient is restricted to a liquid diet, which includes foods such as fruit juices or sugar-free drinks and desserts until the patient recovers from the surgery.

Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band
In this type of surgery, the surgeon places an inner inflatable band at the top of the stomach that creates a small pouch. By this method, eating even a small quantity of food will make the stomach full and reduces hunger by promoting the feeling of fullness, thus inducing weight loss. Reducing the size of the pouch is done gradually over time.

Gastric Sleeve
In gastric sleeve surgery, also called vertical sleeve gastrectomy, a surgeon removes a part of the stomach such that it looks like a banana-shaped section that is closed with staples. Like gastric band surgery, this surgery reduces the amount of food (and thus calories) that can be consumed, making you feel full sooner. The greater impact also is on the gut hormones and gut bacteria that may affect appetite and metabolism. This type of surgery cannot be reversed because some of the stomachs is permanently removed. Recent evidence suggests that the gastric sleeve procedure and the gastric bypass procedure are effective in improving type 2 diabetes and weight loss.

Gastric Bypass
Gastric bypass surgery, also called Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, has two parts. First, the surgeon staples the stomach and creates a small pouch in the upper section. The staples make the stomach very small, so the patient eats less and feels full sooner. Next, the surgeon cuts the small intestine and connects the lower part of the small intestine directly to the small stomach pouch. Once this is done, food bypasses most of the stomach and also the upper part of the small intestine. Since there is less digestion of food by the smaller stomach pouch, and small intestine the body absorbs fewer calories. The surgeon then connects the bypassed portion beyond down to the lower part of the small intestine. The reroute of the food stream produces changes in gut hormones suppresses hunger and reverse obesity induces type 2 diabetes. Gastric bypass is difficult to reverse, although a surgeon may do it if medically necessary.

Duodenal Switch
This surgery, also called biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch, is a bit complex than the other surgeries. The duodenal switch involves two separate surgeries. The first is similar to gastric sleeve surgery. In the second surgery, the bypassed small intestine is redirected food to bypass most of your small intestine. The surgeon also attaches the bypassed section to the last part of the small intestine reconnected to the last portion of the small intestine so that digestive juices mix with food. When the patient eats, the food goes through a newly created tubular stomach pouch empties directly into the last part of the small intestine.

Monday, 15 October 2018

Know About Baldness Treatment in India – Healing Touristry



Baldness is also called as alopecia or hair fall. Hair loss is usually caused or aggravated by stress, pregnancy, aging, thyroid disorder, lack of protein, anemia, and heredity. Progressively as hair tufts disappear, it shows a bald patch between hairs.

Types of hair fall
·         Male pattern baldness
·         Female pattern baldness
·         Alopecia areata
·         Telogen effluvium
·         Anagen effluvium

1.     Male pattern hair loss
Hair loss is caused due to thinning related to hormone (androgens) and genetically called has androgenetic alopecia. Male pattern hair loss pattern is characterized by hair loss on the front of the head and is marked by a receding hairline.

2.     Female pattern hair loss
The early signs of diffuse hair loss and marked reduction in hair volume are visible at the age of 50 years and by the age of 80 years; full head hair loss is seen. It can cause psychological distress, particularly during menopause.

3.     Alopecia areata
It is an autoimmune disorder, where hair falls out in small patches around the size of a quarter or more which can leads to complete loss hair of scalp called as Alopecia Totalis or in extreme cases entire body called as Alopecia Universalis.

4.     Telogen effluvium (temporary hair loss)
Thinning or shedding is caused when a large amount of scalp hair is shifted in the resting phase (telogen phase) of hair growth cycle. Factors contributing are stress, anxiety, poor diet, post-pregnancy, menopause, illness, and smoking. Telogen effluvium is reversible and hair normally grows to a healthy state once the cause is identified and removed.

5.     Anagen Effluvium
Anagen effluvium is caused due to abnormal or rapid loss of hair from drugs used in the cancer treatment or exposure to the chemical toxin. Growth is quick after eliminating exposure to the cause.

Diagnosis
Diagnosis can be established by examination of the scalp to see the pattern of hair loss. A blood test may be carried out to determine the levels of female and male sex hormone levels and thyroid functions. A proper and detailed case history can also help identify the cause. Females with an increased level of androgens are more likely to suffer from symptoms like acne, excessive facial and body hair with irregular menses. These symptoms are characterized as a polycystic ovarian syndrome.

Treatment
Baldness Treatment in India, permanent hair loss is being treated by hair replacement procedures, such as hair transplantation methods (such as micro-grafting, slit grafting, punch grafting), and by scalp reduction. Hair grafting/ hair transplant is an outpatient hair replacement procedure performed wherein the surgeon cuts the removed scalp into small segments with varying amounts of hair in each graft. After transplanting into the balding area, it produces a thick and "natural" look.
A scalp reduction is the removal of non-hair-bearing skin from the scalp (mainly back area) so that the remaining hair-bearing skin can be stretched to fill in the bald area of the head.
The type of hair loss, as well as the patient's circumstances and desires, determine which hair replacement procedures are most suitable.

Minoxidil solution used to treat baldness. Hormonal treatment helps to block effects of androgen (example- spironolactone, cyproterone, finasteride, and flutamide). Cosmetics camouflage colored hairspray to cover thinning areas of the scalp, hair wigs bulking fiber powder are few other ways to manage baldness.

Tuesday, 9 October 2018

Know About Angioplasty Surgery in India


An angioplasty is a surgically invasive procedure to open the narrowed blood vessels and restore the supply of blood to your heart muscle. These blood vessels are mainly known as coronary arteries. Angioplasty Surgery in India, surgeons often perform angioplasty immediately after a heart attack, and takes about 30 minutes to 3 hours, depending on the patient’s condition. Performing an angioplasty within the first hours after a heart attack may reduce the risk of complications. The sooner you take treatment for a heart attack; the lower is the risk of getting heart failure or other complications.

How is angioplasty performed?
Cardiologists usually perform this procedure while you are under local or general anesthesia. First, they make an incision in your arm, where the catheter (a thin flexible tube) with a tiny inflatable balloon on the end into your artery is inserted. Using X-ray, video, and special dyes, the cardiologist carefully guides the catheter through the arteries into the blocked coronary artery. Then another guided wire attached with a deflated balloon through the catheter. Once it is in position, the balloon is inflated and deflated several times to remove the plaque or fatty deposits and also to widen the artery. The fatty deposits, or plaque, get pushed against the wall of the artery, thus improving the blood flow.

In some cases, the catheter is also accompanied by a stainless steel mesh called a stent. The stent is used to keep the blood vessel open. This stent remains in place after the balloon is deflated and removed. Once the balloon is removed, the cardiologist can also remove the catheter.

Many surgical procedures come with a certain amount of risk. Just like many other types of invasive procedures, after undergoing this procedure, you may have an allergic reaction to the anesthetic, the dye, or some of the materials used in the angioplasty. Some risks associated with coronary angioplasty include bleeding, clotting, or bruising at the site of insertion; blood clots forming in the stent; an irregular heartbeat, or arrhythmia; damage to a blood vessel, heart valve, or artery; risk of stroke during the procedure, a heart attack, kidney damage, especially in people who have pre-existing kidney problems, and an infection.

Angioplasty procedure is also associated with the risk of stroke, however, the risk is low. Post-heart attack, if there is a need of performing an emergency angioplasty, then the risk is far higher than a planned angioplasty.  However, angioplasty should not be considered as a complete cure as there are always chances of the arteries becoming narrow again due to plaque build-up in the artery or in a previously placed stent, called as restenosis.

After the procedure

After a heart attack, your cardiologist will explain how to maintain a heart-healthy lifestyle. Always take your medications as prescribed by your cardiologist. It is better to quit smoking, as it damages the arteries and leads to impairment in blood supply to the heart. To help lower your blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels, it is imperative that you eat a well-balanced diet and getting exercise every day. Also, important is to maintain a healthy lifestyle to reduce your chances of having another heart attack.

Thursday, 4 October 2018

Dry Skin Treatment in India – Healing Touristry


A medical term for dry skin is Xerosis. Dry skin is the most common condition due to lack of water in the most superficial layer of skin, the epidermis. Humidity and temperature in the environment have a profound effect on the amount of water which retains within the skin. The epidermis is composed of fat and protein, which helps in preventing skin dehydration. Deficiency of protein or fat may make skin more sensitive and prone to rashes and skin breakdowns. Avoidance of harsh soaps and chemical cleaners would be the basic prevention.

Cause There is no specific cause for dry skin. It can be classified as external and internal causative factors. External causes include cold temperature and low humidity, especially in winter. Internal causes include impairment in overall health, age, genetics, family history, personal history or medical condition such as atopic dermatitis, thyroid disease is more prone to dry skin.

Overuse of sanitizer and lipid solvents (alcohol), cold temperature, over washing with harsh soaps are few other risk factors. Normally bathing and showering add water to the skin, but evaporation of this water results in dry skin. When skin feels over tight after bathing, it indicates the excess amount of water and natural skin oil are removed.

Soap is an emulsifier that removes oil from the skin, more the use more the dry skin even improper moisturizer can also cause dry skin. Material such as wool and synthetic irritates the skin and worsen it more. Dry skin condition may be because of medicines also, for example, high blood pressure, allergy, high cholesterol, and acne medicines. Few factors associated with dry skin are eczema, psoriasis, diabetes, hypothyroidism and malnutrition (deficiency of vitamin A may suffer from xerosis).

Sign and Symptoms
The signs and symptoms include rough dry skin, itching, a red plaque of eczematous skin (nummular eczema), itching can lead to itch-scratch-cycle. Common areas like lower legs, hands, arms, and groins. Due to constant scratching and rubbing, it causes small red raised bumps on the skin can open and get infected because of scratching.

Diagnosis is confirmed by visual inspection with medical and family history can help a physician to support the diagnosis, a biopsy would be recommended in difficult cases.

Treatment for Dry Skin
One of the best Dry Skin Treatment in India is daily lubrication with an emollient (which inhibits evaporation of water). Mainly cause requires treatment such as lotion and creams. Dry skin can be improved by application of bland over the counter moisturizer. Once the cause of dry skin is ruled out main focus of treatment will be to stop itching, prevent loss of water and restore skin hydration. For mild dry skin, light moisturizing lotion or lubriderm lotion or Cetaphil lotion is used. Curel lotion is a highly moisturizing product for severely dry skin. Vaseline is also used frequently to moisturize the skin. Various topical steroids can be used –mild strength like hydrocortisone 1% creams, pramosone 2.5% cream), medium